Journal Articles
Journal Articles

Scientific Journal Articles:
All journals have their own formats and will provide those to you. However, most scientific journals use something similar to the following format:
  • Abstract – summarize your research in under 300 words
  • Introduction – state the problem
  • Literature review and/or earlier research findings
  • Hypotheses – which can also be at the end of the introduction
  • Methods – subjects of the research, procedures, instruments
  • Findings/Results – statistical significance, what did your research show
  • Conclusion/Discussion – do the results confirm the hypothesis, what were the limitations of the study, what does your research mean
  • Further Study – what should future studies work on
  • Acknowledgements – this is optional
  • Works Cited or References
  • Appendices – any information you think your readers would be interested in that is not required in the main article
  • Use lots of graphs and tables
  • Use sub-headings

Humanities Journal Articles:
These journals will also have their own formats for you to follow. However, they generally have the following sections:
  • Initial description – what is the topic
  • Basic methods – do not use the whole list of stimuli, as then that stimulus set cannot be used in the future – so use examples
  • Use graphs and tables
  • Specific results
  • Theory – what are researchers saying about this topic
  • Use lots of graphs and tables
  • Use sub-headings

Tree of Hope
By Julie

Other Options:
  • Thesis to proof – begin with a hypothesis and prove it by considering evidence for and against it
  • Problem to solution – state a problem and then give the steps to solving it; show alternate solutions and why they do not work
  • Question to answer – pose a question and build an answer to it; consider alternative answers and why they were rejected
  • Compare and contrast – state your topic and then provide a comparison; state materials which compare and contrast with the topic and draw lessons from what you discover
  • Cause and effect or effect and cause – present a cause or effect, trace the causal relationships and show proof
  • Known to unknown or unknown to known – outline knowing or unknowing and give a rationale for why it is important to un/know this topic; lead the reader through logical steps to the opposite state
  • Simple to complex – present a simple statement; present issues that complicate that situation and give reasons for the importance of understanding the complexities of the topic
  • A good article on this is by Pat Thomson at:

You should not assume that your readers have any knowledge about your topic. Your article should follow a logical structure